The southernmost Andes hosts the South Patagonian Ice Field are lower and narrower. South America is home to two of the largest countries in the world. Eastern Patagonia is characterized by containing a series of stepped plateaus of lava.. "Present-day South American climate". Paraguay and Bolivia are South America’s only landlocked countries. "Recent developments on the South American monsoon system". "Subtropical anticyclones and summer monsoons", Journal of Climate 14(15): 3192–3211. As the SAMS progresses a continental-scale gyre transports moisture westward from the tropical Atlantic Ocean to the Amazon basin and then southward toward the extratropics of South America. Other major bodies of water include the Gulf of Paria, the Gulf of San Matias, the Gulf of San Jorge, and the Gulf of Penas. (2009). A map showing the physical features of South America. Map of South America. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87(1): 63. The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. As part of the Hadley model of atmospheric circulation, the equator is characterised by the ascending branches of separate meridional cells, driven by intense insolation. Geographically, South America is generally considered a continent forming the southern portion of the landmass of the Americas, south and east of the Panama – Colombia … Marengo, J. and J. C. Rogers (2001). Argentina is the world’s 8th biggest, and is the largest Spanish-speaking country. Geographically, South America is generally considered a continent forming the southern portion of the landmass of the Americas, south and east of the Panama–Colombia border by most authorities, or south and east of the Panama Canal by some. Situated in the southern hemisphere, South America is the fourth largest continent in the world encompassing 15 countries with most of the population speaking Spanish and Portuguese along with many different indigenous dialects. However, one point will be deducted for each incorrect guess. Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by both area and population. Permafrost, however, is widespread in this section of the Altiplano and continuous above 5,600 metres (18,373 ft).  It has also been suggested that is the subsidence over the cool SSTs of the eastern Pacific and extensive stratocumulus decks provide a radiative heat sink to the tropical atmosphere that can balance the adiabatic warming due to the monsoonal descent. It is divided politically into 12 independent countries— Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela —and the overseas department of French Guiana . The above outline map represents Peru, a country located in Western South America. The very fertile soils from the erosion of the Andes formed the basis for the continent's only pre-Columbian state civilizations: those of the Inca Empire and its predecessors (Chavín, Nazca, Mochica, etc.). South America borders the South Pacific Ocean, the South Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea. Get all sorts of information on each South American country including a map, a picture of the flag, population, and much more. The Andes are a Cenozoic mountain range formed (and still forming) Altiplano and a number of major valleys such as the Rio Magdalena. South America: free maps, free outline maps, free blank maps, free base maps, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF Brazil has the longest coastline in South America, followed by Chile. Macaw parrot sits on the liana. "Interannual and interdecadal variability of the South Atlantic convergence zone". The Andes, likewise a comparatively young and seismically restless mountain range, runs down the western edge of the continent; the land to the east of the northern Andes is largely tropical rain forest, the vast Amazon River basin.  No comprehensive theory for ITCZ formation and spatial variation has been validated, although several hypotheses have been proposed. The Amazon River has has a LOT of water. Lima is followed by Bogotá, Colombia, which has a population of 7.8 million. The above outline map represents Brazil, the largest country in South America. Brazil covers more than half of South America’s landmass, and is the largest country in the Southern Hemisphere and the 5th largest in the world. "Linkages between summer rainfall variability over south America and sea surface temperature anomalies". "On mean meridional circulations in the tropics". 14. (2006). I had to. Journal of Climate 21(23): 6227–6246. South America consists of 12 countries and three territories. Annales Geophysicae 27(2): 645–657. Rodwell, M. J. and B. J. Hoskins (2001).  The diabatic heating released in the SAMS region seems to promote that gyre, and the maintenance of the South Atlantic subtropical high during austral summer. Cattle have long been raised in the llanos of northern Colombia and Venezuela, but petroleum is now the dominant industry in the northern lowlands, making Venezuela the richest country in the continent. São Paulo, Brazil, is the most populated city in South America, with a population of 12 million. Also Sorry Peru for the Srta. which have been organised into the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). South America became attached to North America only recently (geologically speaking) with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama some 3 million years ago, which resulted in the Great American Interchange. The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. V. Markgraf, Academic Publishers: 31–51. They include UTC -5, which is observed in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, UTC -4, which covers Guyana, Bolivia, Paraguay, and parts of Brazil, and UTC -3, which is used in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Suriname, French Guiana, and eastern Brazil. South of about Santa Catarina, the highlands fade out to low plains in Uruguay. See if you can beat your friend's high score. The location of the ITCZ is centred on the areas of highest insolation, although it is more stationary over the oceans than landmasses. 155 133 27. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281(3-4): 180–195. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 52(8): 778. South America is the fourth largest continent, the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. About 30 percent of global forest cover hasbeen completely cleared and a further 20 percent has beendegraded. Peru east of the Andes is regarded as the most important biodiversity hotspot in the world with its unique forests that form the western edge of the world's largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. Vera, C., J. Baez, et al. The Caribbean territories are grouped with North America. "The intertropical convergence zone in the South Atlantic and the equatorial cold tongue". The continent’s borders were determined through reasons of culture, geography, logistics, and history. East of the Andes is a large lowland drained by a small number of rivers, including the two largest in the world by drainage area—the Amazon River and the more southerly Paraná River. Laura thing. "The South American low-level jet experiment". The Andes Mountains, located within the Pacific Ring of Fire, are formed from the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the entire western edge of the South American plate. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Sloths of South America have short flat heads, short snouts, and tiny ears. Geo Map - South America - Haiti "A destination spa is a short term residential/ lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spa-goers to develop healthy habits. Patagonia is influenced by the South Pacific westerly air current, which brings humid winds from the ocean to the continent. (2009). South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, "Inventario y clasificación de manifestaciones basálticas de Patagonia mediante imágenes satelitales y SIG, Provincia de Santa Cruz", Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, CIA - The World Factbook - Falkland Islands, BBC NEWS | Americas | Country profiles | Regions and territories: French Guiana, Insee - Population - Population des régions au 1er janvier, CIA - The World Factbook - South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Forum for the Progress and Development of South America (FPDSA), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_South_America&oldid=993501660, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 23:10. The decay phase of the monsoon begins between March and May, as convection shifts gradually northward toward the equator. During April and May, the low-level southward flow of moisture from the western Amazonia weakens, as more frequent incursions of drier and cooler air from the mid-latitudes begin to occur over the interior of subtropical South America. Blue Morpho Butterfly. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Start studying Lesson 3: South America's Political Landscape. South America: Physical Features - Map Quiz Game: The South American continent is dominated by Brazil, which in turn is dominated by the massive Amazon rainforest that takes up most of its area. 265 220 53. The northernmost capital city in South America is Caracas, Venezuela. Polar Air Outbreaks in the Americas: Assessments and Impacts During Modern and Past Climates. The South American continent also includes various islands, most of which belong to countries on the continent. South and North America are sometimes considered a single continent or supercontinent, while constituent regions are infrequently considered subcontinents. Landscape Mountains.  Most of this central lowland is sparsely populated because the soils are heavily leached, but in the south is the very fertile pampas of Argentina—one of the world's major food-producing regions where wheat and beef cattle are pre-eminent. A map showing the countries of South America. East of the Andes in Argentina, there are a number of rugged, generally arid to semi-arid isolated mountain chains called Sierras Pampeanas, the highest of which is the Sierra de Córdoba near the city of the same name. Globe Earth America. The South Atlantic High moves eastward, reflecting the pressure reduction over the continent and the intensity and direction of the zonal flow over the nearby tropics and sub-tropics. Mountain Glacier Winter. The Atacama is mined for its nitrates. Robertson, A. W. and C. R. Mechoso (2000). Each time you correctly select a South American country on the map you will get 5 points. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 25: 979–983. The geographical structure of South America is deceptively simple for a continent-sized landmass. International Journal of Climatology: n/a–n/a. Restoration is possible.Most countries have suffered forestloss and degradation and have opportunities for restoration.Vast deforested areas in Europe and North Americah… Oliver, J. E. (2005). Most of the population of South America lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. Paegle, J. N. and K. C. Mo (2002). Map Land South America. A map showing the capital cities of South America. Efforts to develop agriculture, outside of fertile floodplains of rivers descending from the Andes, have been largely failures because of the soils. In this short film, you will be taken on a journey through the incredibly varied landscapes of this imposing continent, South America. The most populous country is the United States (2010 census). During the rainy season, a layer of water covers its surface and creates a mirror effect, making it hard to tell where the land ends and the sky begins. Raia, A. and I. F. A. Cavalcanti (2008). As the world’s longest mountain range, the Andes stretch from the northern part of the continent, where they begin in Venezuela and Colombia, to the southern tip of Chile and Argentina. Identifying Uruguay, Suriname, and Guyana may be a little tougher to find on an online map. Silva, G. A. M., T. Ambrizzi, et al.  The southward moisture flux east of the Andes also increases, bringing humidity to central and southeast Brazil. As viewable by the dark green indications on the map, 40% of South America is covered by the Amazon Basin, which itself is mostly covered by the Amazon Rainforest. Journal of Climate 16(4): 723–733. A map showing the four time zones that are observed in South America. Mountains & Highlands South America’s primary mountain system, the Andes, is also the world’s longest. Brazil, country of South America that occupies half the continent’s landmass. Journal of Climate 15(12): 1389–1407. Bordered by mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, the legendary landscape of Patagonia displays huge forests, sizeable mountains, valleys, and many cold-water lakes. The largest country in South America is Brazil, followed by Argentina, Peru and Colombia. Outline Map of Peru. Peru is known for its diverse landscapes … The other major river of this central lowland is the Orinoco River, which has a natural channel linking it with the Amazon. Coloring Map of North America Color in this map to learn the countries of North America. A., B. Liebmann, et al. 59 51 17. Situated on the far western edge of the continent, the Andes stretch from the southern tip to the northernmost coast of South America. This change in flow direction is evident in changes to terrestrial windfields over extreme southwestern Amazonia, with winds changing from northerlies to northwesterlies, and over eastern Brazil, where the winds turn from easterlies to northeasterlies. The climate can vary to sub-tropical to tropical depending on the latitude. "A pan-Atlantic decadal climate oscillation". Grodsky, S. A. and J. Brazil contains most of the Amazon River basin, which has the world’s largest river system and the world’s most-extensive virgin rainforest. The above map can be downloaded, printed and used for geography educational purposes like map-pointing and coloring activities. Whereas the ITCZ has a global extent, South America is subject to its own unique climate patterns. Venezuela has its own time zone that is half an hour off from the rest of the continent, called UTC -4.30. The continent's topography is often likened to a huge bowl owing to its flat interior almost ringed by high mountains. The Altiplano contains many rare minerals such as copper, tin, mercury ore. These contain three of the world's highest capitals: Bogotá, Quito and highest of all, La Paz, Bolivia. A map showing the physical features of South America. 211 184 32. In the north of this region is the arid sertão, a poor region consistently affected by extremely erratic rainfall, and the humid zona da mata, once home of the unique Atlantic Rainforest with many species not found in the Amazon, and now a centre for sugarcane. Monthly Weather Review 128(8): 2947–2957. 227 306 49. The area is still a major agricultural region. The diversity of South America’s landscapes is perhaps the greatest of any continent. Hastenrath, S. L. (1968). F. Vimeux, F. Sylvestre and M. Khodri. The map above reveals the physical landscape of the South American Continent. South America is also home to the Atacama Desert, the driest desert in the world. 3D Model World Earth. 145 107 71. Breaking the spiral of loss and degradation andrestoring these lands would bring many benefits. There are, however, many other physical features and different types of environments in the 13 countries that make up the continent. A map showing the delineation of countries in South America. Lima, Peru, is the second most populated city, with a population of 8.9 million people. Vintage Map America. 2. Charney, J. G. (1971). Further south, the main land use is coffee, while São Paulo is the economic heart of the continent with its industry. The Andes Mountains in Argentina contain advancing glaciers including the Perito Moreno glacier, as well as "Cerro Aconcagua" - at 22,831ft (6,959m) is the tallest mountain in South America and in the Southern and Western … The above blank map represents Brazil, the largest country in South America. Regional Maps: Map of South America. 122 207 47. The combination of colonization and geography also explains why the continent has no clear regional leader. The above blank map represents Peru - a country located in Western South America. Interhemispheric Climate Linkages. Marengo, J. As these inwards flows of air converge they reduce horizontal wind speed, and as they rise, they form precipitation. That’s mostly due to its massive size in terms of land, population, natural resources, and economy. Click to get a larger printable version of map. Source: ECLAC (click to enlarge) Why South America Doesn’t Have a Major Power. The vertical convection also results in a net export of heat and freshwater from the lower atmosphere into the troposphere This system is known as the ITCZ. The Amazon River has cut a large valley through a former highland, and to the east is a relatively low plateau comprising the Nordeste and Southeast regions of Brazil. (2010). Moisture Pattern During the Last Glacial Maximum in South America. Desert Mountain Field. The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea — Colombia and Venezuela —are also known as Caribbean South America. Xie, S. P. and Y. Tanimoto (1998). Besides the number of forefeet toes, there are these differences between two-toed and three-toed sloths: Two-toed sloths have six or seven vertebra; Two-toed sloths have no tails. There are a number of large glaciers in the northern part, but from latitude 19°S to 28°S the climate is so arid that no permanent ice can form even on the highest peaks. The longest land border in South America is shared by Chile and Argentina. It occupies almost 50% of landmass of … A map showing the major bodies of water surrounding South America.  The vertical convection draws in air from the surrounding atmosphere, known as the trade winds. Regions in South America include the Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Hand Keep Globe Earth. Geophysical Research Letters 25(12): 2185–2188. South America - South America - Cultural life: The rapid expansion of communications technology has brought the social, economic, and political happenings of urban life to formerly isolated rural communities and in the process has created a transnational South American culture. Brazil is often regarded as the emerging leader for South America. Garreaud, R. D., M. Vuille, et al. The Andes mountain range dominates South America’s landscape. The natural vegetation of the northern lowlands are either savanna in the northern Llanos and southern campos, or tropical rainforest throughout most of the Amazon basin. Hope you enjoy. Historically many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or sources of mineral waters. 474 565 67. "Dynamical theory of formation of cloud bands in tropical oceans". The southernmost capital city is Stanley in the Falkland Islands. We hope you have fun learning the countries of South America with this geography game. "Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according to the ENSO variability". UTC -2 is only used in the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The most mountainous area is on the western side of the continent. As an integrated component in the global climate system, the SAMS is influenced the Atlantic sector of the ITCZ, variability in the adjacent Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the Andean and central-east Brazil topography, complex land surface processes and relations with land use change, and interactions involving topography and soil moisture. The eastern highlands are areas of Earth's crust that are much older than the Andes, being pre-Cambrian in origin, but are still rugged in places, especially in the wet tepuis of Venezuela, Guyana and Roraima. The Andes mountain range dominates These include continental convection and equatorially asymmetric sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. Physical Map of South America. Except for the figures on the Falkland Islands (which are from July 2008) and French Guiana (January 2008). Map of South America #2. Southwest Bolivia’s Salar de Uyuni, which at just over 4,000 square miles in size is the world’s largest salt flat, is one of South America’s most surreally beautiful landscapes. A. Carton (2003). Sylvestre, F. (2009). South America, the fourth-largest continent, extends from the Gulf of Darién in the northwest to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the south.  Whichever hypothesis best represents the natural system, it is clear that the dynamics of the ITCZ are influenced by several other external climate systems. Lake Titicaca, between Bolivia and Peru, is the largest lake in South America. The longest river in North America is the Mississippi-Missouri River System. National Geographic Maps hub including map products and stories about maps and mapmaking In the Atlantic region, the ITCZ is clearly developed, and the spatial extent of the ITCZ reaches a minimum close to the equator during the boreal spring (March–May), while extending to a maximum of 10°–15°N in late boreal summer (August). 77 54 27. The continent also contains drier regions such as eastern Patagonia and the extremely arid Atacama desert. Important mountainous areas are the Brazilian Highlands, the Guiana Highlands, the Serra Dois Irmaos and the Serra Grande. Over the last several centuries, vast forest areas have beencleared as agriculture has spread and human populationshave grown. In the north, the Gulf of Panama is connected to the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean by the Panama Canal. South America is dominated by two major landforms. Peru Mountain Andes. It is the fifth largest and fifth most-populous country in the world. Along with the islands of Tierra del Fuego, the continent includes the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador), Easter Island (Chile), the Falkland Islands (United Kingdom), and the Chiloé and Juan Fernández archipelagos (Chile). The range covers about 8,850 kilometers (5,500 miles). Population, Landscape, And Climate Estimates (PLACE), v3 (1990, 2000, 2010) » Maps Follow Us: Twitter Follow Us on Facebook YouTube Flickr | Share: Twitter Facebook Search The smallest country in South America is Suriname, followed by Uruguay, and Guyana. Jungle Realistic Vector Landscape - Buy this stock vector and explore similar vectors at Adobe Stock This asymmetry is evident in the northward bias of the ITCZ's location, which is maintained by a positive feedback between wind speed, evaporation and SST.. Some studies advance ideas that describe one or more atmospheric cells over the equator, while others state that the position of the ITCZ depends on Ekman pumping efficiency and moisture availability. Regional Maps: Map of South America. The largest country in South America by far, in both area and population, is Brazil. Suriname (/ ˈ sj ʊər ɪ n æ m /, US also /-n ɑː m /, sometimes spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik syːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. "The Life Cycle of the South American Monsoon System". Colorful Color Brush. 75 52 14. Fun Facts about North America: The city with the largest population in North America is Mexico City, Mexico. With the exception of narrow coastal plains on the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, there are three main topographic features: the Andes, a central lowland, and the extensive Brazilian and Guiana Highlands in the east. Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions: From the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. Topography there is dominated by the Andes Mountains.  The SAMS framework comprises several distinct subcomponents, which are discussed below: The development of the SAMS during spring is characterised by a rapid southward shift of the convective region from northwestern South America to the highland region of the central Andes and to the southern Amazon basin. 56 35 10. Encyclopedia of World Climatology, Springer. Butterfly Exotic. The Andean Plateau is the world’s largest plateau outside of Tibet. Outline Map of Brazil. These winds, however, lose their humidity (through cooling and condensation) as they blow over the west coast of South America and over the Andes, and they are dry when they reach Patagonia. Brought back Cindy and Diego from the Ecuador and Colombia episodes for this one! The above map can be downloaded, printed and used for geography education purposes like map-pointing and coloring activities. Like all other areas within the Ring of Fire, South America is prone to volcanic activity and strong earthquakes. 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