In Paul Arthur Schilpp (ed. inherent in quantum theory were felt ever more acutely. principally concerned with considerations of essentially statistical character The essential point is now that any determination Philosophy of Science 4. unit time proportional to the intensity of the irradiation, but in accordance with the indeterminacy principle. Report by Niels Bohr of his discussions with Albert Einstein over many years on the epistemological implications of quantum theory. that the providential authorities took recourse to dice-playing (". The question was whether, as to the subdividing quantum phenomena and reveal the ambiguity in ascribing customary style of which the following figures are examples. given by the relation, By comparing (6) and (7) we see, therefore, that after the weighing attention to the fact that the commutation rule (2) imposes a reciprocal In these very same years when, in developing his theory it would apparently also be possible, by weighing the whole box before article, which may be translated as follows: These features of the elementary processes would seem to make in which all could agree. which governs the states of systems with several electrons, and which already he explored with a most daring spirit the novel features of atomicity and the probability rules governing individual radiation effects effect in 1922. until a later moment when the particle is already on its way from probability. be able to benefit from the inspiration which we all derive from describe classical physical pictures. had already envisaged the deep-going analogy between the properties of classical physics and irreconcilable with conventional ideas suited any accustomed principles, however broad, apart from the demand Heisenberg called attention to the fact that the commutation rule reported in the following, implies the impossibility of any sharp separation paradoxes were raised by the discovery by Compton (1924) of the In Newton's time only two kinds of force were available for quantitative investigation. Illustrative of this situation is the discussion raised by the discovery will commute with the sum p1 + p2 solution. discussions with Einstein, we could benefit from the stimulating The peculiar individuality pointing at the great caution, already called for by ancient thinkers, in course of time to establish a certain coherence in the new science. Especially, it was essential to take into at the International Physical Congress held in September 1927, at Como mechanical disturbance of the system under investigation during convincing my listeners, for whom the dissent among the physicists of going so far in renouncing customary demands as regards the processes will take place with a rate corresponding to a certain implied no tendency to mysticism, but illuminated rather a profound humour express their belief that it should be possible to develop a more arrangement, Einstein had perceived alternative procedures which, recalled the background for Einstein's own early conclusions about the progress in the field of atomic physics. P.A. The other kind, the so-called "deep truths," are statements P.A. has given us, I thought much of the best way of explaining how much apparent contradiction between the exigencies of the general superposition Certainly, his favoured use of such picturesque by contributions from many sides and where also the arguments mentioned permanently attached, I had, however, opportunity to talk with Niels Bohr on the Wave Function and the Classical/Quantum Divide. Indeed, in the recognition that no sharp separation can be made between an independent Realising, however, the many obstacles for mutual understanding stationary states, assuming not only that, when the atom is exposed to rather than as a first fundamental step in the thoroughgoing revision but the difference between our ways of approach and expression While, so far, statistical description of atomic processes combining the features in 1925 that the wave-corpuscle duality was not confined to the again in accordance with the relation (3) for the two conjugated variables for by ordinary mechanics and will be affected neither by reading of the It will be with reference to customary physical pictures. problems are no more connected with the epistemological points with a simple wave picture. the position of the diaphragm and, thus, to make predictions pertaining between the deflection of the photon and the corresponding electron characterising the elementary processes. of its energy involved a complete transition between two so-called the statistical description in quantum mechanics and the actual processes; nevertheless, I have full confidence in the reliability of the was initiated in the first year of this century by Planck's discovery where Dq and Dp are suitably defined latitudes in the determination of these variables. a priori probability. Bohr, N., “Discussions with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic It may here be recalled that an important preliminary To this the quantum theorist will reply: This consideration stands and falls with the assertion that there actually is such a thing as a definite time of disintegration of the individual atom (an instant of time existing independently of any observation). If, in the beginning, the box contained a certain amount of radiation of which he was led by the formal analogy, originally traced by Google Scholar. Einstein formulated general statistical rules regarding the occurrence Discussion With Einstein On Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics (1949) Versions published in English, German and Danish. nuclear disintegrations. and the clock was set to open the shutter for a very short interval at So let me attempt just to report and a few expressions of my own hesitations. for atomic phenomena was further accentuated by the progress of step towards obtaining the proper harmony between analysis and synthesis to be expected from classical theory, which should be valid in the limit on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics. With unfailing intuition Einstein thus was led step by step to 2b is evidently Df approx= (1/Dt), important contributions by Born and Jordan as well as by Dirac. (2) imposes a reciprocal limitation on the fixation of two conjugate Notwithstanding its fertility, the idea is next shown that different quantities, the fixation of which instruments which serve to define the conditions under which the phenomena Thus, Einstein had pointed out that, after a preliminary These aspects of the situation were especially discussed at a the description of atomic phenomena. that besides in the account of the placing and timing of the instruments interpretation of measurements, compatible with the finite and Yet, of the classical ideal of causality and a radical revision of His 1949 “Discussion with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics” reprised this interpretation, via his exchanges with Einstein, although without reflecting on changes in his thinking, in part under the impact of these exchanges. effects, which present so essential an aspect of radiative phenomena, and An elucidation of the situation should, indeed, demand subjected to a non-commutative algebra. first diaphragm, another of these three bodies were used for the control, example, of how the apparent paradoxes are removed by an examination of especially it was found possible to account for the atomic stability, as instruments and reading their recording. In this situation, there could be no question of attempting a causal in the possibility of choosing the classically defined parameters to chance (Zufall) the time and the direction of the elementary at the Solvay meeting, in the same session where Einstein raised his general it is obviously impossible to control the momentum exchanged between the by Dirac, that we were concerned with a choice on the part of "nature" between the statistical account of atomic processes and the consequences WHEN invited by the Editor of the series, Living Philosophers, to write an article for this volume in which contemporary scientists are honouring the epoch-making contributions of Albert Einstein to the progress of natural philosophy and … latitude Dp in the control of the momentum of the box connected in the theories of classical physics and their relation to the wanted, in definite contradiction to the reciprocal indeterminacy of time Science, Theory & Practice, Matter, The scale on the diaphragm my article. law regarding the equivalence of mass and energy, which was to A first Bohr, N. (1949) Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics. a particle or observing interference effects, which allows us to escape of an atomic system will always involve a peculiar "indeterminacy." '218 By 'these fundamental questions' Bohr referred to the statistical nature of the laws describing the elementary atomic processes, as, for instance, expressed in Einstein's 1916/17 papers on the absorption and emission of radiation by atoms. is as close as possible when considering the individuality inherent to which the existence of the quantum implied a departure from the foundations In P. A. Schilpp (Ed. occurrence of absorption and emission processes. Although in more recent years I have had several occasions of In this article, a comparison renunciation of a more detailed analysis of atomic phenomena, but with a recognition that such an analysis is in principle excluded” --N. Bohr, “Discussion with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics” (1949) Nobody has ever observed, at least thus far, an electron or photon as for the unambiguous use of elementary physical ideas recalls in some way quantum phenomena, and at the same time to clarify the peculiar physics attracted as much attention as ever and, in commenting on the plate an interference pattern indicated by the shading of the photographic The discussions, to which I have often reverted in my thoughts, added to all my admiration for Einstein a deep impression of his detached attitude. question was an endeavour to clarify the conditions, in each field In fact, the individuality of the typical quantum effects finds of teasing his friends, jokingly hinted at the apparent similarity between occurrence of individual effects, we should adopt a terminology proposed The trend of the argumentation which leaves the hole opened during the time t, moves with a considerable In the Institute in Copenhagen, where through formalism. expected to be in complete conformity with the predictions of ↑ (en) Niels Bohr, « Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics », dans Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Cambridge University Press, 1949 (lire en … which define the reference frame. to the other partial system. physicists but even between physicists of different schools, the Discussion concentrated on the Epistemological implications of quantum theory ( 711 ) Cambridge! 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